Tuesday, October 14, 2014

October Update

Instead of editing previous updates I thought I would start again from scratch and focus on the most critical items in their order of urgency and risk. With just a couple of months to go there is considerable schedule risk on one key component - the receiver material - and that could still cause a launch delay.  The good news is that is the rest of the components are either on hand, or we have a very good design with some solid applications engineering left, which we think is just work, and not as much risk.


The Receiver

I've been talking about and posting pictures of coatings from the scanning electron microscope for those nerdy enough to want to see the details, and there are dozens and dozens more we have done. Ted, Jake and Gerry have proven feasibility of New55's unique receiver system, and we have some good examples. Now it is time to scale it up at a commercial coater.

That's not easy and we are racing to finish that formula for a projected first test coat of wide roll material on November 6!   The time has been booked at a great Massachusetts coater and they have been a dream to work with so far, but we still have work to do, and this event is only a couple of weeks from today.

The risk: We might not have the formula ready for coat. They do the coating, we supply the "juice".

If we are successful the coated roll will be slit into smaller rolls and go straight into the Sleeve Machine which is a key machine we have up and running well.

Die Cut Sleeves

After the well-working Sleeve Machine, an outside service has to make the complex curve cuts which means we have to cut to length and then send them out. The first units had ragged edges and some other problems that were not cosmetic, such as out of spec flatness. This is a worry but not a major one as the vendor has shown a great deal of improvement in his process. We decided not to bring die cutting in house because it is so widely available.

The Clip

The first pieces we got of the famous Clip worked better than any clip from Polaroid, Kodak or Fujifim.  They hold shape, are stronger, and straighter. They fly into the 545 holder and grab the sometimes-work finger like a vise. So we went ahead and OK's production of 30,000 of these little items, and they aren't cheap. But, they are worth it.

The Tongue

Des Fyler has devised a film loading scheme so practical, so elegant, so intuitive, that it is hard to believe that Polaroid, Fujifilm or Kodak never did it. The part is made in such a way that the pod and film are held in a fixed position to each other every time and that also attaches itself to the Clip using a special adhesive.  Tooling and sourcing this design is an ongoing part of our race to the finish, and it's gonna be close.

It is worth noting that the way the Tongue and the Clip work together overcomes some legacy problems associated with the 545 holder. The angle of the clip relative to the sleeve is biased in favor of the back, allowing the finger to grab the clip, while still assuring a smooth entrance and light-tightness.  If we can, we want to do things in a better way than before even though we know there is risk in change.

The Pod

Ted and co have pre-produced some pods with a new reagent for us to get started with. This will at first be a somewhat laborious and unprofitable operation which will have to be corrected by additional pod making tooling or even a new machine, which has been quoted at the alarming price of over $100,000. That's just for one unit. It means that we would have a $4 per unit tooling burden to pay down and that could drag out unless we ramped up into the 400,000 unit realm. I don't know about that, but some others around here are more optimistic.

Update: An hour after I published this I learned that the pod machine will not arrive until the following month. This could affect the pod making schedule and will delay the engineering changes to the machine, which is owned by 20x24.

The Reagent

Some of the chemicals used in the reagent are going out of production.  I hate it when that happens.

The Pod Material

The paper of the pod is special and needs to be sourced before the initial amount runs out in mid-2015. Polaroid invented the idea of pods and paper a long time ago and today we have ketchup, cosmetic, sanitary and prophylactic pods of many kinds, but few with what the industry refers to as "frangible seals". That is taken to mean "more easily breakable", in the pod world, and several strategies have evolved. Pods often have sections and some instant film products have sections where the chemicals change over time, producing pod stripes on the picture. We only expect one chamber, so any stripes will be due to other manufacturing variabilities, or the subject.

The Film

In the freezer. Works good. Special run for us and more coming in. Another freezer will be needed. Yay.

The Box

Sam has finally found a very strong box that has all the right attributes, including a price that makes sense, and is about to get these made. He needs to order a large amount, so, we will have a lot more boxes than we need. Maybe we can put something else into them besides New55 FILM.

Packaging and Fulfillment

Sam is ably developing the right methods with a fulfillment system that will be simple  - once it is set up. This is nontrivial and requires a lot of development still. Beside the actual product, it must also efficiently ship out accessories and rewards across the globe.

The Schedule

All these things and much more are supposed to converge in November when process development, production flow organization, documentation and supply chain metrics will be first established. It will be a busy time and one that will determine when we have our First Lot to Stock of New55 FILM.




Friday, September 19, 2014

Production Ramp for New55 FILM

Production ramp up estimates are usually expressed in straight lines, but never, in my experience, occur that way. There are bumps, delays, overages and changes along the way. Our supporters have pledged for New55 FILM to become a sustainable product, not a one-shot deal. That means we have to 1. estimate the steady state sales demand and 2. tool and schedule materials and labor for the required numbers.

The chart shows how it all might work: On the vertical scale are units per week. I prefer to have that as a measurement because it works well with production assemblers, who may work part of the week, or have a certain quota to meet. If week 7 fell a little short, for instance, then the assemblers still have week 8 to look forward to.  This is better than waiting a month to find out if production targets are being met.  So in our case we will call start of production "week 1", which starts out as zero.

The steady sales demand estimate is pegged at 1000 units per week.  This number surprises some people as rather small, but it represents the point where in steady amounts the product nears break even which is the term for "not losing money, not making money".

Since nobody imagines that the Kickstarter "demand" of some 20,000 units can all be built and shipped at once (nor could they be unless we hired a lot of people and then had a big layoff after the first 20,000 are shipped, which would be very wrong!) a scale-up ramp that within a reasonable time achieves the steady state demand is used and the shipping schedule is established to fit it.

Early "orders" get filled first and in the sequence they came in, which means that a trickle will go to the first few supporters and from then a stream will build up until all have been shipped.  This kind of "first in, first out" method is very common, and along with a scale-up ramp, allows a small number of people to be employed on a steady basis through the demand. It also has the advantage, the very big advantage, of allowing us to fine tune the process, which will naturally get better over time if there is no "panic".  Steady, sustained, even and smooth are the words you want to hear.

The big risk is what happens after the demand is filled. A sharp drop off in orders would be bad. More orders than expected would be good.  1000 units per week (that means 200 boxes of 5 sheets) comes to 25 units per hour in the normal week.  That's a good and sane starting pace that is fair to the assemblers and achieves - we hope - a new instant film product that can be made for many years. Time will tell.
There is also a low side estimate within statistical possibility


Monday, September 1, 2014

September 1 update


Risk Summary - September 1 covering progress in August, 2014.



Here is a summary of the various at-risk components of New55 film as of September 1, 2014. Please refer to the August summary as well so you can compare progress.



The Sleeve Assembly. This contains the Receiver sheet which has several parts, the stop tab, end tab and printing. It has to be stable yet easily peelable, light tight, and axially stiff enough to allow easy insertion into the 545 holder. And as we have advertised, it should produce less "Polatrash" than its predecessor.


Status: Some parts done, several in development. We continue to rely on The Sleeve Machine and it works well. We have even found a die-cutter who can perform all the cut to length operations at an OK starting price.

Cost: Still high, but at least now we know.


Risk: Moderate mechanical risk, high materials risk.

The Receiver Sheet


Status: New design developed by New55

Cost: High? We don't really know what the bill will be yet.

Risk: High. This is the highest risk component of the project and is quite complex. The team has done well, and have a single layer all aqueous system that works.  The design is out for quotes at coating facilities.  THIS IS A HUGE MILESTONE.

The Base is paper, of a certain thickness, width etc. that serves as the support for some 8 other layers of materials.  Further experiments with the Base paper show it is a suitable substrate, subject to the addition of a bridge coat, and a bright white coating.

Status: We have it

Cost: Low

Risk: Modest




The Laminate in this case is the opacification layer, which is something we invented, and the polymer overcoat layer.

Status: We have it, but we might not need it anymore, given the apparent success of the single layer all aqueous receiver design.

Cost: Low

Risk: Modest




The Bridge is an additional coat that seals the Base and Laminate making them impervious and less susceptible to excess water absorption during coating steps and user processing. It has to be a material that will support the next coat.


Status: Still needed and one version tested that works reasonably well.

Cost: Unknown

Risk: Moderate


"Image" is what we call the layer that is white and has the glossy surface you see. In actuality, this layer is fairly complex, has to have an exact pH and pH over time characteristic, and have a high whiteness. It also has to have a nanostructure that is particular to the DTR process and image quality requirements learned from the photonics fields, and therefore requires specialized services which we do not have, currently.

Status: We might have eliminated this, too. Luck may be with us here, but we do not know for sure.

Risk: Being reassessed.


The Nucleation Layer is where the black and grey tones of the positive image are developed and held for eternity or at least for a long time. We have formulated our own modern Nucleation Layer and now have to find a resource to apply it.

Status: We invented this, it works, and we think it can be commercialized

Cost: High. This layer uses very expensive materials in small quantities, but it adds up.

Risk: High. Even though we know how to do this, it has never been commercialized, but we have possibly found the right coating resources to make it a reality.


The Release Layer is the very topmost layer and it keeps the reagent from sticking and making a mess. We have to find someone able to do this, or do it ourselves. It isn't all that complex but this layer can impart a brown or yellow tone to the positive, which looks awful. So we want to avoid that.

Status: Tests show this is an easy process.

Cost: Moderate

Risk: Low/Moderate

The Cover might also be called The Back of the Sleeve Assembly. Its job is to keep the assembly light tight and form a thin cover for parts to slide. We have designed The Cover to mimic the operation of our Base and Laminate, only thinner, to keep the total thickness within the limits of the 545 holder. The Cover works very well, looks nicer than anything Polaroid used for its sheet film, and it seals the light out like no tomorrow, so hooray for The Cover!


Status: We have it here and it works well. Leaving well enough alone!

Cost: Low

Risk: Modest


The Stop Tab is a piece of thick paper that prevents you from pulling The Sleeve all the way out of the camera. It has to be cut from the right stock and glued into the right place and we need to invent a tool to do that, because nobody wants to hand-glue 25,000 tabs.

Status: Being designed and sourced, with significant vendor contact now

Cost: Unknown

Risk: Moderate/Low


The End Tab is the part you hold with your hand as you insert the film into the 545. It has to be peelable, stiff, locatable with simple machinery, and have opposing adhesive stripes applied to it prior to assembly. It looks like something we might have made for us. Fingers crossed.

Status: Being designed and sourced with significant vendor contact now

Cost: Unknown

Risk: Moderate/Low




Printing on The Sleeve is expected but not absolutely necessary. Some kind of "Lens Side" mark might do. I'm not even going to think about it now.


Status: None

Cost: Unknown

Risk: Low


The Pod is very important and has to be configured to fit inside the sleeve, on The Insert Assembly, and contain the processing jelly, or reagent.

Status: Working prototype needing further tooling and a schedule.  We have estimated the quantities and a further consideration is the move of 20x24 which could make scheduling a problem in the coming months.

Cost: High

Risk: Moderate


The Pod Materials is a bit touchy as it uses aluminum barrier material perilously close to a strong alkali, but Polaroid and Fuji got away with it for the most part, and then so must we. A better pod material is something worth developing, but later on.

Status: Some on hand, more needed later

Cost: Unknown

Risk: Moderate

The Reagent is made of a specially blended developer, solvent, alkali booster and thickener (and other chemicals) that process the negative and do double duty of transferring dissolved silver sols across an electrolytic barrier into the Receiver Sheet. A book could be written about The Reagent. It won't be published today. Suffice to say that a suitable reagent processes a good negative and a good positive, and stays active for a while before something happens to it.

Status: Complete and working, but now we need to run it in quantity and test it again.

Cost: High

Risk: Moderate

The Tongue Assembly is the insert that holds the sheet film, pod and is terminated by The Clip. Its final assembly has to be done in total darkness so it is the last assembly step.

Status: Prototyped and a very clever prototype it is, with laser cuts and adhesive strips! Pretty cool!

Cost: Low

Risk: Moderate


The Clip is "just" a piece of metal. No understatement stings more than that one at this moment, when the tooling charges and lead times for The Clip are still ringing in the checkbook. The original style Polaroid clip was made of soft steel and painted. The cost to make this part from a painted steel would be enormous today. Without the paint it would rust, so we have found a substitute material that does not require paint and has better springiness too. It has never been tested, so we wait with bated breath.

Well, the first batch is out of spec. They want us to see if we can use them the way they came out. I don't think so. This is a bummer and needs to be addressed right now.

Status: Designed and on order with prepaid tooling, awaiting decision of engineering if we can use them as-is. Probable change to tooling needed.


Cost: High


Risk: Dammit


The tongue is shaped like a tongue, sort of, and supports the film and pod. It is made of thin but stiff and slippery stock which has to be die cut. Pretty doable.

Status: Designed and very cool prototype from a can-do vendor! We like that!

Cost: Low

Risk: evolving.

The Adhesive Strips have to be applied to The Tongue with a machine. This involves vendor development and has not been done yet, so it remains an unknown for now.

Status: In design

Cost: Unknown

Risk: Moderate


The Negative is rather important and something we could not make ourselves. It has been unnerving to see our favorite negative - EFKE - go out of business. It worked the best in DTR mode because it was primitive and had cubic grains that were mainly at the surface - like Panatomic X used to have. It turns out that the more primitive emulsions work the best in DTR and advanced T grain types do not. They were latecomers anyway and there are still some old school emulsions left. The makers of these emulsions were not quite sure if they should be named in New55 because the performance of the film is very different in our system, but it doesn't matter much to us as long as we can get 4x5 negative in bulk, cheaply! We cannot do that, but we are doing our best to keep the cost reasonable. You had better start buying more 4x5 films from these vendors is all I can say right now.

Status: Sourced AND NOW IN OUR FREEZERS. Whew!

Cost: Higher than expected

Risk: Moderately low


Source A has agreed to ship a starting quantity of film in stages and we are tracking the heat history, lot numbers, emulsion characteristics, packaging and other things that can ruin film or degrade, fog or damage it - before we have a chance to.

Source B has suggested they might compete with Source A in price but we have not any agreement on that at the moment. 

Since last month, we have prices for each of our suitable emulsions. The price ratio is about 2:1 and we have chosen the right balance between cost, performance, and suitability for Diffusion Transfer Reversal.

The Package is essential if we want to ship New55 FILM to anyone.

Status: To be sourced, no change to status

Cost: Unknown

Risk: Unknown


The Liner is a fancy name for a sealed plastic bag that seals the film from the environment. There has to be the right size and a sealer that is quick to use.


The Box has to be stiff enough for transport but light in weight and inexpensive. It should be plain for shipping and not appear to be sealed after opening.


The Label has to be printed and put on the box. There is a machine that does that and uses the label to also seal the box, saving tape, time and expense.



Sunday, August 3, 2014

Risk Summary - August 1

Here is a summary of the various at-risk components of New55 film with comments.  It will be interesting to see how these ratings change over time, as I expect they will. In general, mechanical aspects such as joining, cutting, edging, die cuts, and assembly are less risky than materials-intensive component sourcing, particularly those involving outside coating services.  We know or will know most of what we need for these outside services, but have to be concerned about their schedules, which are slower than we would like. More details as follows so you will know what the parts are and what they do.

I've listed these in order of assembly, a bit like an indented bill of materials. Maybe I should post the product configuration tree here somewhere. In any case...

The Sleeve Assembly.  This contains the Receiver sheet which has several parts, the stop tab, end tab and printing. It has to be stable yet easily peelable, light tight, and axially stiff enough to allow easy insertion into the 545 holder. And as we have advertised, it should produce less "Polatrash" than its predecessor.

Status: Some parts done, several in development
Cost: High
Risk: Moderate mechanical risk, high materials risk.

The Receiver Sheet is the place where a positive image is formed in the dark during processing. It has to have the right stiffness, be totally lightproof, compatible with film emulsions, since it may be in contact with a dry emulsion for a long time, water tight, and most importantly of all, it has to have the nano-enabled structure upon it for a good neutral (not yellow or brown!) toned DTR image to be produced in a couple of minutes. Nobody manufactures it today so we have to make it, and there are several parts that we have to bring together to cause that to happen.

Status: New design developed by New55
Cost: High
Risk: High. This is the highest risk component of the project and is quite complex.

The Base is paper, of a certain thickness, width etc. that serves as the support for some 8 other layers of materials. Polaroid didn't use this construction, but if they did, the material supplier they used would have stopped making the material anyway. In fact all the paper materials used by Polaroid in the sheet films are gone. All of them are out of production. So we have had to start again from scratch, and have succeeded in designing and obtaining something we think is better, less costly, more modern in character, and environmentally sane. I like it.

Status: We have it
Cost: Low
Risk: Modest

The Laminate in this case is the opacification layer, which is something we invented, and the polymer overcoat layer. Together these form a very strong and dimensionally stable web for further processing, one that is not likely to shrink or swell over time, or develop a curl.  We have an excellent Base and Laminate, and it gives us great confidence that we can, at the very least, keep film from fogging by light or by chemicals such as silicones which are used in many "black" papers.

Status: We have it
Cost: Low
Risk: Modest

The Bridge is an additional coat that seals the Base and Laminate making them impervious and less susceptible to excess water absorption during coating steps and user processing. It has to be a material that will support the next coat.

Status: Not prototyped yet
Cost: Unknown
Risk: Moderately high

"Image" is what we call the layer that is white and has the glossy surface you see. In actuality, this layer is fairly complex, has to have an exact pH and pH over time characteristic, and have a high whiteness. It also has to have a nanostructure that is particular to the DTR process and image quality requirements learned from the photonics fields, and therefore requires specialized services which we do not have, currently.

Status: We know who uses it in their papers, and it begins with a "K".
Cost: High?
Risk: High.  BUT - if we can get this coating, in a reasonable time, we'll have made a big advance.

The Nucleation Layer is where the black and grey tones of the positive image are developed and held for eternity or at least for a long time. We have formulated our own modern Nucleation Layer and now have to find a resource to apply it. It is very clever and reduces the complexity (as if this isn't complex enough) of the manufacturing steps vs what Polaroid used to do with thirty vendors, three shifts and 137 people in two large buildings filled with coating equipment. Ted and I invented this new less complicated nucleation system, and it works. Now that we know what to do, making a couple is no big deal, but scaling this up is a fairly big deal.

Status: We invented this, it works, and we think it can be commercialized
Cost: High. This layer uses very expensive materials in small quantities, but it adds up.
Risk: High. Even though we know how to do this, it has never been commercialized.

The Release Layer is the very topmost layer and it keeps the reagent from sticking and making a mess. We have to find someone able to do this, or do it ourselves. It isn't all that complex but this layer can impart a brown or yellow tone to the positive, which looks awful.  So we want to avoid that.

Status: We think this is important but doable
Cost: Moderate
Risk: Low/Moderate

The Cover might also be called The Back of the Sleeve Assembly. Its job is to keep the assembly light tight and form a thin cover for parts to slide. We have designed The Cover to mimic the operation of our Base and Laminate, only thinner, to keep the total thickness within the limits of the 545 holder. The Cover works very well, looks nicer than anything Polaroid used for its sheet film, and it seals the light out like no tomorrow, so hooray for The Cover!

Status: We have it here and it works well
Cost: Low
Risk: Modest

The Stop Tab is a piece of thick paper that prevents you from pulling The Sleeve all the way out of the camera. It has to be cut from the right stock and glued into the right place and we need to invent a tool to do that, because nobody wants to hand-glue 25,000 tabs.

Status: Being designed and sourced
Cost: Unknown
Risk: Moderate/Low

The End Tab is the part you hold with your hand as you insert the film into the 545. It has to be peelable, stiff, locatable with simple machinery, and have opposing adhesive stripes applied to it prior to assembly. It looks like something we might have made for us. Fingers crossed.

Status: Being designed and sourced
Cost: Unknown
Risk: Moderate/Low

Printing on The Sleeve is expected but not absolutely necessary. Some kind of "Lens Side" mark might do. I'm not even going to think about it now.

Status: None
Cost: Unknown
Risk: Low

The Pod is very important and has to be configured to fit inside the sleeve, on The Insert Assembly, and contain the processing jelly, or reagent.

Status: Working prototype needing further tooling
Cost: High
Risk: Moderate

The Pod Materials is a bit touchy as it uses aluminum barrier material perilously close to a strong alkali, but Polaroid and Fuji got away with it for the most part, and then so must we.  A better pod material is something worth developing, but later on.

Status: Some on hand, more needed later
Cost: Unknown
Risk: Moderate

The Reagent is made of a specially blended developer, solvent, alkali booster and thickener (and other chemicals) that process the negative and do double duty of transferring dissolved silver sols across an electrolytic barrier into the Receiver Sheet. A book could be written about The Reagent. It won't be published today. Suffice to say that a suitable reagent processes a good negative and a good positive, and stays active for a while before something happens to it.

Status: Complete and working
Cost: High
Risk: Moderate

The Tongue Assembly is the insert that holds the sheet film, pod and is terminated by The Clip. Its final assembly has to be done in total darkness so it is the last assembly step.

Status: Prototyped
Coat: Low
Risk: Low

The Clip is "just" a piece of metal. No understatement stings more than that one at this moment, when the tooling charges and lead times for The Clip are still ringing in the checkbook.  The original style Polaroid clip was made of soft steel and painted. The cost to make this part from a painted steel would be enormous today. Without the paint it would rust, so we have found a substitute material that does not require paint and has better springiness too.  It has never been tested, so we wait with bated breath.

Status: Designed and on order with prepaid tooling
Cost: High
Risk: Moderate

The tongue is shaped like a tongue, sort of, and supports the film and pod. It is made of thin but stiff and slippery stock which has to be die cut. Pretty doable.

Status: Designed
Cost: Low
Risk: Low

The Adhesive Strips have to be applied to The Tongue with a machine. This involves vendor development and has not been done yet, so it remains an unknown for now.

Status: In design
Cost: Unknown
Risk: Moderate

The Negative is rather important and something we could not make ourselves. It has been unnerving to see our favorite negative - EFKE - go out of business. It worked the best in DTR mode because it was primitive and had cubic grains that were mainly at the surface - like Panatomic X used to have.  It turns out that the more primitive emulsions work the best in DTR and advanced T grain types do not. They were latecomers anyway and there are still some old school emulsions left. The makers of these emulsions were not quite sure if they should be named in New55 because the performance of the film is very different in our system, but it doesn't matter much to us as long as we can get 4x5 negative in bulk, cheaply!  We cannot do that, but we are doing our best to keep the cost reasonable. You had better start buying more 4x5 films from these vendors is all I can say right now.

Status: Sourced
Cost: Higher than expected
Risk: Moderately low

Source A has agreed to ship a starting quantity of film in stages and we are tracking the heat history, lot numbers, emulsion characteristics, packaging and other things that can ruin film or degrade, fog or damage it - before we have a chance to.

Source B has suggested they might compete with Source A in price but we have not any agreement on that at the moment.

The Package is essential if we want to ship New55 FILM to anyone.

Status: To be sourced
Cost: Unknown
Risk: Unknown

The Liner is a fancy name for a sealed plastic bag that seals the film from the environment. There has to be the right size and a sealer that is quick to use.

The Box has to be stiff enough for transport but light in weight and inexpensive. It should be plain for shipping and not appear to be sealed after opening.

The Label has to be printed and put on the box. There is a machine that does that and uses the label to also seal the box, saving tape, time and expense.

About timing

The timing is always a risk area. Vendors and lead times are always long, and we end up waiting for things to come in. That being said, we have planned the roll out in a sane manner that has a production level forecast of 100 to 200 units per day, one shift, more or less continuously. This is necessary in order to maintain steady employment of trained assemblers and to running a successful, sustainable business. It also means that as the New55 FILM rolls out, those who are early in the shipping schedule may see something that is somewhat different than those who are later in the schedule. Such is the way of manufacturing ramp-ups, universally, and it is a familiar model to many because improvements and learning are both unavoidable when a small company launches its first products.

Timing is the least controllable risk, and the most likely to be problematic.

A thank-you to the many who have suggested vendors and sources. We always check on these. One of the things people often do not realize is the cost of having custom materials made, and the unsuitability of standard components, such as papers, in the application.  Also, our needs in terms of square meters are too small for many coaters to consider.

The DTR process is demanding and the surface chemistry and engineering are right up there with the most modern and demanding nanotech processes of today - something that reminds us that the origin on nanotech certainly belongs to those in the 20th Century who first learned how silver can self-assemble into black blobs, and how nanoparticles act as catalytic seeds. Today the many nanotech students are rediscovering the magic material silver, and what it does when light is applied to it. It is wonderful and also infuriating to read the conclusions in new scientific journals such as "NANO" that silver migration is a new discovery. Perhaps it is, perhaps it isn't.


Monday, July 14, 2014

July Update

Note: This identical text may appear in the Kickstarter update section as well, but may not contain links or images. We had the pleasure of a visit by Steve Herchen of The Impossible Project, and a great lunch at Stone's Public House which is highly recommended. TIP, and Inoviscoat, are a partly combined entity and are interested in doing synergistic work that could lead to OEM arrangements, which we will consider as we move along.  We'd like to hear your opinion on us working more closely with TIP going forward.

In general, progress has been steady and a number of important milestones have been met. These include:

The Sleeve Machine is operating and produces usable assemblies. The system still needs to be calibrated, mounted on a rigid base, and the feed system needs to be built. One problem is the motor control which is too coarse so we will have to replace the servo with a stepper. Another problem are the tape guides which are too wide and need to be redesigned. None of these problems require discovery.

The Receiver Sheet design has progressed considerably but is not near completion.  A new reduced-step formula has been experimented with by Ted McLelland and Jake Kellett, and a number of test impressions have yielded fair Dmax and image formation, with some evidence of color control. We discovered that the neutralization scheme used by Polaroid to stabilize their receiver sheet is not very aggressive. We also saw using scanning electron microscopy the original receiver sheet which has lower porosity than imagined from the literature.  This is a puzzle.  An intensive discovery experiment plan will remain underway for this important component. The versatility of silver and its many forms astounds us!   I like the Ag2S the best, personally.

The Secondary Operation Tools - ten or so of them - are being designed and the next one is the cutoff tool followed by the corner notcher. We need to invent a method of heat bonding or using another adhesive step for the sleeve formation, and this is ahead of us for August, in all likelihood.

Test Samples of paper bases from an important vendor have arrived in small quantities. This is just the first step in what looks like a circuitous chain of events including laminating, rerolling, converting, coating, and further converting, in at least three location widely separated by geography.  Still, it all seems possible.

Our first film supplier agreement was finalized by Sam and there is now a production, shipping and payment schedule in place which will - if all goes right - result in about a third of our first production order arriving at our dock in August. The hot weather at that time makes us worry about heat damage so some heat sensors will travel along with the first shipment.  Sam will be visiting this vendor along with our importer/agent to assure that there is a proper understanding and commitment in place as we progress to production quantities.

The infamous clip tooling has finally been ordered. There was a lot of back and forth on this deceptively complex part regarding dimensions and tolerances, surface finish, base material, and edge radii. The clip is still about 7 weeks out due to a delay in the tooling order, but that is now in place and the vendor appears to be getting to it this week.

The air conditioning in the upstairs lab now works well, which means we can operate in the safer environment with a good fume hood and not melt.   I can't imagine what the electric bill will be like this Summer.

I am also still running after acquiring our own scanning electron microscope. There are dozens of these surplus for under 10K, so one would think we could get one in here and operating for 25K or less.  It is not clear we can, but I am still trying.

In general, much progress has been made but there are many things yet to be done, and some discovery in the form of coatings technology that still will require attention, possibly up to product release - and perhaps beyond.






Saturday, July 12, 2014

Machines and their complexity

A lot of times during the course of the project we are asked if there are specific machines already available for production that we can buy, perhaps as surplus.  A brief answer to this is no, there aren't any, but there are a few types of paper and web handling machines that do perform many of the operations needed.  We do not have any folding or creasing steps in the process, and that's intentional, but we do have adhesive steps, and the application of adhesives can be a messy business if not handled right.

Shown are some envelope making machines that produce ordinary envelopes that you might use to mail a letter or more likely, pay a bill with.  The principle of the system is to take a roll of paper and cut, fold, gum and shape, which should be simple.  But look at how complex these machines really are, with their many stages and sections devoted to certain operations.

The paper rolled out into a sheet is referred to as the web in the paper industry. Webs have coatings put on, get rolled and rerolled, cut and converted, laminated with other webs, and more. The world of paper and sheets is a vast one.

Polaroid did have some machines used for the production of the sheet film. For instance, the sleeve making machine which we have designed our own version, is an obvious example. You can see some of them in this video.

Monday, June 30, 2014

New55 at 10,000X

The world of the really small, too small for us to see unaided, is the province of the microscopist. The microscope, as you surely know, allows us to see details that we could never imagine and has had countless uses in medicine, industry and science.  There are dozens of types of microscopes, optical, acoustic, fluorescent, field emission and scanning electron, to name but a few.  Today we used the scanning electron microscope (SEM) to look at the edge of a receiver sheet - that's the white paper where instant positive photographs form, and it is quite a complex thing.

The receiver sheet as described by Andre Rott and Edith Weyde contained nuclei - mainly of metals and metallic salts - suspended in the top layer of paper, or any substrate.  When contacted by the processing chemical, and an exposed negative, the interchange of ionic silver, solvents, and sulfides occur in a rapid, battery-like process.  Electrical charges, yes. The "electrolyte" is not that different than most alkaline batteries, except that is a developer and a fixer, too.

The silver halide in the exposed negative represents one "terminal" of the circuit. What is the second? In the fast-paced world of Diffusion Transfer Reversal, otherwise known as instant photography, it is the receiver paper, or more exactly, minute metals or metal salts and precursors, that form the second "electrode".  Those who are familiar with battery technology are sure to ask "which is the cathode, and which is the anode?" It depends.

Below are two SEM images obtained just today that show the various receiver sheet layers. Stacked like a cake, but made of paper, then a baryta coat, then acid layers, a timing layer, a nucleation layer, and finally a top, or release layer (to prevent sticking).  New55 FILM needs to make this or something like it. It's a daunting task as there are no recipes and even if there were, perhaps from patents and scientific papers, there'd still be a lot of process information. So we have over the last month started on the development of these layers, beginning with our visit to Colorado, where coaters capable of coating so-called "solvent coats" meaning, not water-based, but instead based on alcohols, acetone, or some other solvent. That was just the start: Now, every day, the coating team formulates at least one or two experiments, tests them, and decides on the next experiment.

The value of an SEM is hard to overestimate, and I would like to have one close, in our lab.

Baryta, then cellulose acetate, acid layer and other layers

The nucleation layer. We barely see the tiny nanoparticles.

















Tuesday, June 17, 2014

Brief update on first month

June 17, 2014: The last four weeks have been hectic: We are still getting banking and credit accounts squared away so we can disburse the Kickstarter money more efficiently and get quicker responses from vendors. Everything takes longer than you'd like, when you are in a hurry.  A number of important things have happened since the actual transfer of funds for the project one month ago:

We now have an agreement in place with Soundwave Research to use its facilities at a reasonable rate, and also use its existing insurance, bookkeeping, and heat, light, and rent. A portion of Soundwave's facility has been reallocated to New55 FILM, including "the back lab" where I sit, and the upstairs lab and office areas.  This saves having New55 try to rent its own space for now, which would take about three months to accomplish, and a lot of money that is more urgently needed to work on product development.

I have cleared my schedule, and have been working full time on the project, and Sam has too.

Sam has negotiated a reasonable starting price for our film while leaving our options open. Having choices in the film supply is a goal, and probably a necessity considering the changeable nature of photographic film suppliers. The global nature of film suppliers and the logistics costs, such as shipping and import duties, are significant, too.

Ted and I flew to Kodak Park in Windsor CO to discuss a contract where the coating machines can be used for making our receiver sheet. This trip also resulted in a big bill from Hertz car rental. The coating machines in Colorado might be able to do the solvent coating development we need, and possibly more. This is going to be an ongoing and intensive part of the New55 FILM project, and will have to occur in parallel with all the machine design efforts and everything else. It is our number one risk area as there are financial, technical and timing risks throughout this portion of the project.

A number of new machine designs have been drawn up, the process flow chart is done, the product configuration tree is finalized, and a portion of the Sleeve Machine is already nearing completion. The Sleeve Machine is a key piece of equipment and will - if it works right - assemble some or all of the Sleeve assembly, which is fairly complex and requires precision, and several steps in rapid sequence. We've hired an automation engineer who is going to design and have build cutters, possibly rotary die cutters (for speed) and various crimping and bonding tools, and install the Sleeve Machine on the first floor, in the back lab area which will become a dedicated production area. The plan is to use that space for any process that may create particulates, then clean and perform final assembly in the upstairs lab where we can better control dust.

We've finalized the clip design (but still subject to the last design review), and have quotes from four sources. None are cheap and all require fairly large tooling charges, which are a one-time thing.  I think we will pull the trigger on the order for 25,000  clips this week, probably. The clips we are going to order will be made of a different steel than previously and they will be stronger, more supple, and less prone to deformation. The new clips will also not require paint, which is a very expensive thing to get on a clip that has to cost less than a quarter. Some of you may be alarmed to see a shiny clip instead of a black one, but it is nothing to worry about.

With clips and some machines expected to be here within 8 weeks, we've ordered surrogate papers from a paper converter slit to our dimensions. This is necessary so we have something to work with while we source the real papers. Surrogate papers are just about any paper that has the right thickness and width that can be put up on rolls.

And much much work hunting down papers has gone on. This mystery still leaves me with the impression that if we had an expert we'd find what we need off the shelf. But so far we have made modest progress with some of Polaroid's old vendors, slowly. The supply of paper materials has been identified as our number two risk. I've already traveled to paper mills and plan to go to more of them soon, and we are looking to hire a genuine paper expert, in case you know one.

We hired a very sharp Summer Intern who is a Chem-E undergrad from UMass Amherst to do a lot of the test coatings, pH and timing layer experiments, and several other important experiments that we think we need to do to finalize our own receiver design. This simplified design will use materials that didn't exist until recently and stems from my work in nanotech. We are fortunate to have Ted McLelland from 20x24 Studio guiding much of this R&D and leading the coating efforts.

Sam has established contacts with important logistics and shipping, fulfillment and customer tracking firms we will need to ship the product. He has also started to plan the fulfillment process, plant tours, and schedules, though it is quite early for that.

This list is by no means everything. We've purchased some lab equipment we needed, such as a viscometer, and have performed some basic experiments that point to next generation DTR in the process.  We are just getting organized and it seems to me, at times, like pushing a very heavy boat off of a dock. Over the next month we hope to have at least one key assembly machine up and running with surrogate materials, and also have progress in the receiver sheet design.

An important lesson - a reminder - from this first stage is how important materials and suppliers are, and what a minor role machines really play, despite all their complexities. New55 FILM is materials-intensive. Each part has special properties that you can't just go out and buy, even though they look simple. You can get a hundred samples of "opaque paper" and none will actually be opaque, for instance.  So that's what we are on right now, and today we are going to clean the upstairs lab and install full spectrum lamps and do a little painting. There are many other things to do.


Saturday, June 14, 2014

Paper in New55 FILM

New55 FILM is made mostly of paper. You would think that paper of the type, thickness, opacity and stiffness would be easy to get - there are so many papers in the world. But Fujifilm, Polaroid, Kodak etc all use(d) custom-made papers for their products. They could do so because they needed so much of it, and the paper industry is scaled for very large production orders.

We need more than a dozen kilometers of paper for our first run. This sounds like a lot, but it is puny compared to what the paper manufacturers want to run.  "OTS" means Off The Shelf, referring to commercially available things. We are fortunate that some 4x5 sheet films are OTS items, because the cost to develop and run new ones would be enormous.

Over the last four weeks I have spent nearly every day researching "lightproof paper" and "baryta paper" to see if I can find any OTS papers that fit our needs. I've visited paper mills and contacted others, and still do not have a complete answer to what we need. I'll continue to look for the perfect paper that is ready to go, but anticipate that we have to contract custom runs.

For the Reciever

A 7 or 8 mil, totally lightproof baryta paper is needed. One excellent company named Felix Schoeller of Germany made such a thing for Polaroid in the past, and we have contacted them. Since there is nothing OTS about this paper, I have found an alternative lightproof coating that can be applied to ordinary baryta paper if needed. But the extra cost of doing that is something I prefer to avoid. The Receiver paper has to be respooled and then converted to the right width for our Sleeve Machine.

For the Cover

Any color, as long as it is completely lightproof, thin, perhaps 5mil, and available converted to long rolls for the machines we are building. Another European company, James Cropper of UK, has made these types in the past.

The "Tongue"

Long rolls aren't needed as this is a die-cut part, but it still should be reasonably opaque, lubricious and stiff enough to allow support of the 4x5 film sheet, pod, and clip attachment.

This is not even a large roll of paper, by most standards

Paper Experts

I have not found a product engineer who is a paper expert, though I assume such a person exists somewhere in the paper industry. Each manufacturer has their own experts who know the details of what they make, but I would like to hire a person experienced in sourcing and specifying "technical papers, as a consultant. The right person will have direct experience with buying papers for industrial applications - preferably in North America.



Packaging

A box and other papers are needed to put the product in including labels. I think we can get these easily, but it will take some work, and have a cost associated with it too.

Saturday, June 7, 2014

Proposed Sleeve Machine

The Sleeve Machine, shown in schematic form
The Sleeve Machine is a device to join a receiver sheet and a cover sheet together at the edges, perfectly flat, and with a controlled overlap of tape rails that space the rollers during processing.  This sets "the gap" which is the distance between the negative and the receiver sheet that the processing gel resides in during the 120 seconds of development.

Shown are the two "pancake rolls", referring to their narrow width-to-diameter ratio. A roll like that requires flanges (not shown) to keep the layers from telescoping and making a mess. Sort of like magnetic tape, but much bigger.  The construction of the receiver surface is even more complex than magnetic tape, so while that conundrum is being pursued, we are moving ahead with the design and construction of the Sleeve Machine.

The Sleeve Machine is designed to produce 200 to 400 sleeves per day, in accordance with our steady state manufacturing plan. We will need to sell that many to keep New55 FILM in production after the Kickstarter rewards are filled.

Since paper is flexible, rollers are used to pull the two sheets through the machine, where the edges are taped, followed by a cut-to-length operation, possibly with a rotary die.  This cutter will need to produce the curved fishmouth at the open end, and the corner clipped closed end, designed so that a user can pull the sheets apart after processing.

There is much to do with the Sleeve Machine and many other automated and semi automated tools in the plan, which is being aggressively  scheduled ahead of the supply of materials.

Without the materials we can't make the product, but having a machine at least lets us use surrogate materials to fine tune the assembly specs, train people, and design and add safety guards, along with the necessary electronic measurement and control systems.

I'd also like to print on the sleeve during this operation and save having to do it beforehand.

Getting the right sized rolls of the exact needed material is the hardest part: Much wider rolls have to be custom run, then slit and rerolled. The hub cannot be too small or the curvature of the material will be too great, and the outside diameter cannot be so big that an operator cannot lift it into position.

Wednesday, June 4, 2014

Opening for a chemist or chemistry intern

We have an opening in the Ashland, MA lab for a chemist or chemistry intern with some laboratory experience. Duties will include designing, setting up, and running experiments, ordering materials, keeping lab records of results, producing summaries of results for the decision-making process, and research into various forms of nano-sized phenomena used in photography. This will initially be a part time position, and/or a temp position, and we would like to fill it immediately.

To qualify you must be local to Ashland MA and have relevant skills which we can determine from your CV, a phone call, or both. Our working hours are 8am to 5pm, Monday through Friday.

Contact:

New55
C/O Soundwave Research Laboratories, Inc
72 Nickerson Rd
Ashland MA 01721 USA
508 231 4515